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Fusarium or dry rot of potatoes, sources of infection, symptoms, treatment and preventive measures

Fusarium or dry rot of potatoes, sources of infection, symptoms, treatment and preventive measures


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Fusarium is a fungal disease that affects potato bushes during the growing season and tubers during storage. Since real crop losses can be up to 40%, it is important for vegetable growers to learn about the causes of dry rot damage and get acquainted with modern methods of dealing with a dangerous disease.

Content:

  • Factors provoking the development of the disease
  • The causative agent of the disease, ways of infection
  • Hidden and obvious signs of fusarium on stems and tubers of potatoes, description and photo
  • Effects
  • Treatment and prevention of fusarium

The causative agent of the disease, ways of infection

Fusarium wilting, or dry rot of potatoes, is a fungal disease. Its causative agent is Fusarium oxysporum.

The disease is widespread in the Far East, in the southeastern regions of the Russian Federation.

  • spores of Fusarium oxysporum on the remains of other plants in the soil;
  • infected organic fertilizers applied to the soil;
  • planting material affected by the fungus.

The main source of infection is infected soil, in which the mycelium of the fungus tends to persist for several (about 5-6) years. The fungus penetrates through the horse system of the plant, then the mycelium develops in the conducting system, which leads to blockage of blood vessels. The transition of the disease to the active stage occurs during the flowering period, when the immune system of the potato is most vulnerable.

Infection occurs during storage:

  • due to the presence in storage sites of organic residues from the previous year's harvest, or contaminated soil;
  • when selecting for storage tubers affected by the fungus, or having mechanical damage.

The place intended for storing potatoes, before laying a new crop, it is recommended to carefully clean, dry and ventilate, treat with a fungicide solution.

During storage, it is advisable to periodically sort out potatoes, it is very important to exclude the possibility of infection of healthy tubers from those already diseased.

Factors provoking the development of the disease

The defeat of plants occurs with a confluence of several factors:

  • the presence of holes on the tubers, eaten by a bear or wireworm, damage by a nematode;
  • lack of proper care for the beds: they do not loosen, do not weed, overgrow with weeds;
  • excessive soil moisture at high ambient temperatures;
  • the introduction of an excess amount of nitrogen fertilizers;
  • soil contamination with pathogens;
  • planting potatoes in the same place more often than after 4 years.

During the storage period of tubers, the active development of fungi is caused by:

  • the air temperature in the storage is above +12 C (the optimal indicator is below + 12 C);
  • air humidity exceeding 90%;
  • temperature fluctuations causing condensation.

If stored improperly, losses can reach 15%.

Hidden and obvious signs of fusarium on stems and tubers of potatoes, description and photo

The plant can be infected with Fusarium at any stage of development. The defeat is focal in nature, this is especially noticeable in the midday heat.

Most often, the first symptoms appear during the flowering period: the shade of the leaves changes to a lighter one, then marginal anthocyanosis begins to develop. Further, the wilting of the leaves is observed, they droop. The color of the lower part of the stem becomes brown, if the air humidity is high - a light bloom may appear on its surface, putrefactive processes begin to develop.

It takes only a few days for a diseased plant to wilt completely, the dried stems are easily pulled out of the soil. With a cross section of the stem, it is easy to see the browning of individual vessels or the entire vascular ring.

Fusarium rot on tubers can also develop during storage. A couple of months after laying in the basement, but maybe even earlier, dull, grayish-brown spots-dents appear on the surface of the potatoes.

The flesh of the potato under the spots becomes dry, the formation of voids, filled with the whitish mycelium of the pathogenic fungus, occurs.

The development of pathogen spores on the surface of potatoes manifests itself in the form of bulges of a yellow, pinkish or white hue.

The germination of the affected potatoes is slower than that of healthy ones, the sprouts are filamentary, weak.

The danger lies in the very rapid spread of infection to the tubers lying nearby.

Fusarium, what it looks like, what symptoms can determine the onset of the disease, watch an interesting video:

Effects

Untimely diagnosed and untreated fusarium can have disastrous consequences. Under favorable weather conditions, it can lead to a loss of 40% of the crop.

The course of the disease is quite fast, its manifestations can be observed in the early period, in the form of:

  • thinning seedlings,
  • a strong slowdown in the development and growth of plants.

Infected tubers are more likely to be affected by gray mold.

Treatment and prevention of fusarium

The measures used to combat fusarium can be divided into two groups:

  • Biological.
  • Agrotechnical.

Agrotechnical ones include:

  • maintaining moderate humidity in potato beds;
  • thorough weeding, weed removal;
  • tracking and removing diseased bushes with their subsequent burning;
  • compulsory observance of crop rotation;
  • timely preventive treatment of bushes during the growing season;
  • avoiding injury to tubers during harvesting, transportation, storage;
  • use for planting only healthy tubers;
  • placement of beds in non-swampy areas with light soils;
  • the introduction of complex mineral fertilizers into the soil, in particular, containing potassium, which increases the resistance of plants to fungal infections;
  • the fight against late blight, the treatment of plants with fungicides during the growing season reduces the threat of damage to tubers by dry rot during storage;
  • planting varieties with increased resistance to the disease (Detskoselsky, Priekulsky, Berlichingen)

Biological impact involves the use of chemical and biological drugs that are capable of destroying the causative agents of fusarium.

Fungicides used to treat plants act on lesions from the inside. Such preparations contain beneficial microorganisms that can cause the death of disease-causing cells. They are considered safe for humans.

The most popular biologics:

  • Baktofit;
  • Fitosporin-M;
  • Integral.

A good effect is obtained by dressing seed potatoes with the MAXIM.KS contact agent:
before storage;
before disembarking in the beds.

Before laying for storage, the tubers are dried in dark, cool rooms for at least two weeks and carefully sorted out.

Let's watch an interesting video about the prevention and treatment and prevention of potato diseases:

Fusarium, or dry rot, is a common disease that can lead to the death of a significant part of the crop. Compliance with agricultural techniques and harvest storage rules will help reduce the risk of its appearance.


Watch the video: Protect Potatoes Post-Harvest with Stadium Fungicide (June 2022).


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