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How to grow tobacco in the country, the rules for planting, leaving and harvesting

How to grow tobacco in the country, the rules for planting, leaving and harvesting


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Undoubtedly, cigarettes are unhealthy, but nowadays their prices are sometimes even more dangerous than nicotine.

In order not to go broke on tobacco products, you should pay attention to a simple question: how to grow tobacco in the country?

Despite the apparent complexity, there is nothing supernatural in this.

Content:

  1. Tobacco - plant description
  2. How to grow tobacco in the country: where to buy seeds, in what month to sow
  3. Technology for growing tobacco in the open field
  4. How to grow tobacco in an apartment
  5. Harvesting
  6. Organization of correct storage

Tobacco - plant description

Tobacco belongs to the genus of annual (sometimes perennial) herbaceous semi-artisanal crops, which is part of the nightshade family.

This plant originates from South America, from where it came to the European continent along with the Spanish sailors and spread further around the world.

The attitude towards this plant, as a harmful one, was far from immediately formed, at first it was even recommended for the treatment of certain diseases.

A distinctive feature of this plant is the high percentage of nicotine that it contains. It is important to remember that this substance is addictive, negatively affects the organs of the respiratory system and the circulatory system.

That is why cigarettes and cigars can be dangerous to the health and life of both the smoker and the people around him.

Other features of the shrub include:

  • Plant height - no more than 80 cm;
  • The stem is fleshy, straight and branched, round in cut, with large succulent petioled leaves, which are collected in rosettes;
  • The flowers are tubular, open in the evenings and last until dawn, sometimes they can be seen on cloudy days. They have a strong specific smell;
  • Flowering begins in June and lasts until a cold snap. Inflorescences, depending on the variety, may differ, but will always have a paniculate shape;
  • Fruits are multi-seeded capsules. As they mature, they open up and release tiny brownish seeds with a high germination rate. The latter speaks of the unpretentiousness of the plant;
  • The root can reach a length of several meters, rod type.

When growing this crop, it is important to consider that it is susceptible to the influence of many pests. The most common are tobacco moth or Colorado potato beetle, which can completely destroy the crop if the lesions are not eliminated in time.

The tobacco used for smoking is characterized by wide and smooth leaf blades. This form allows, after drying, to roll them into plates and then light them up.

How to grow tobacco in the country: where to buy seeds, in what month to sow

Tobacco is not a rare plant. It is grown both for cigarettes and as an ornamental plant, so it is not so difficult to find seeds. You can buy seeds at any specialty store, or order them online.

However, in the second case, you should be extremely careful, as there is a danger of running into scammers and spending money in vain.

Sowing seeds for seedlings, for subsequent transplanting in open ground, is recommended in early February. To do this, you need to prepare a substrate - a light and loose soil with an equal ratio of earth and sand. It is worth preparing the soil even before the cold weather.

After sowing the seeds, it is recommended to water the soil and cover the box with the seedlings with foil to create a greenhouse effect. Already in the second week, you can see tiny shoots. At this stage, it is recommended to remove the film, while it is important not to damage the sprouts.

It is possible to plant seedlings in open soil only after it finally gets warmer outside.

Temperature fluctuations, frost can destroy seedlings before they germinate.

Technology for growing tobacco in the open field

Growing this plant outdoors begins with growing seedlings.

To do this, you need to consider a few details:

  • The purchased seeds must be laid out on a moistened cloth, where they should be kept for a day until they swell. A couple of drops of tartaric acid or a couple of crystals of potassium nitrate can be added to the water with which the napkin is moistened, which will make it possible to accelerate the process of seedling formation;
  • After swelling, the seeds are recommended to be washed and dried. After that, the seeds are again placed on a damp cloth in an enamel or ceramic container. The container should be placed in a warm place, not forgetting to moisten the napkin on which the seeds are laid out from time to time;
  • A week later, after the first shoots appear on two-thirds of the seeds, they must be dried and carefully sprinkled with dry sand. It is this mixture that must be sown in containers with a previously prepared substrate to a depth of no more than 8 mm. It is worth planting in separate cups, cassettes or pots, which is due to the dislike of all nightshades for transplants;
  • The planted seeds are covered with a film on top and placed in a warm place, where direct sunlight would not penetrate, maintaining the temperature at 23-28? C;
  • After the first shoots appear, it is important not to forget about regular watering. After the seedlings have the first few leaves, the frequency of watering should be increased, and the temperature should be reduced by a few degrees;
  • Twice a day, it is recommended to remove the film and ventilate the seedlings, provide fresh air.
  • After the fourth leaf appears on the sprouts, they can be transplanted into a large container, adding a fertile mixture under the earthen clod.
  • You can plant seedlings in open soil by the end of the month. Visually, this can be determined by the height of the sprouts (they must reach at least 14 cm) and five real leaves. During this period, the root system of the plants should already have developed enough so that the seedlings can be planted without risk.

When transplanting, it is important to consider that:

  • A week before planting the seedlings, they need to be taken out for a while outside for hardening. For the first time, a few minutes will be enough, but gradually it is recommended to increase the length of time spent on the street;
  • Two days before planting, you need to stop watering, and a few hours before planting, water abundantly;
  • Before planting, select a well-lit area without drafts with light loose soil, to which you need to add a little ash or mullein;
  • Prepare shallow holes located at a distance of half a meter from each other. Pour half a liter of water on the bottom of each and, after it is absorbed, place a seedling in the hole and sprinkle it with wet soil, and then dry. This will help protect the plant from excessive moisture evaporation.

It is not difficult to grow it in a summer cottage, but it requires compliance with some nuances. First of all, it is important not to forget about regular watering, systematic loosening of the soil around the bush with the removal of weeds.

In addition, it is important not to forget about the need for mineral and organic fertilizing. It is recommended to apply top dressing for the first time on the second day after planting. The second - on the third week, the third time - on the sixth week after transplanting into open soil.
The last point that you should pay special attention to when growing is vershoking.

After the plant has released flower arrows, you need to break off half of them. This will activate the growth of stepchildren, which should also be removed.

A lot of useful and interesting information about growing tobacco, watch the video:

How to grow tobacco in an apartment

After the seeds germinate, they are not planted in open soil, but transplanted into a pot.

To do this, after the seeds germinate, you must:

  • Moisten the soil and sow the germinated seeds superficially, gently pressing into the depth no more than 3 mm. In this case, it is worth acting extremely carefully so as not to break the roots;
  • Caring for seedlings on the windowsill is no different from caring for plants planted outside. It is important to remember about systematic watering and maintaining a constant temperature of no more than 20 C;
  • Avoid drafts that can harm the seedlings;
  • When replanting, use the transfer method together with an earthen clod. The plant does not tolerate transplants that can damage the root system, so transferring it to a new pot should be carried out with extreme caution.

Growing a shrub in an apartment is not difficult and outwardly, with proper care, it will not differ in any way from what is grown on the street.

However, it is important to remember that such a plant does not receive all the nutrients that a bush grown outdoors does. The latter affects the quality of the final product, significantly worsening it.

Harvesting

The harvesting process can take several weeks. Correctly assembled sheets are a guarantee of the quality of the final material.

To achieve the maximum effect, you must:

  • Start collecting sheets from the bottom, which by that time should turn yellow and dry. The leaf blades must be intact;
  • It is recommended to spread the collected product under the roof itself, in a thirty-centimeter layer for half a day, in order for the collected material to wither completely;
  • The attached product must be strung on a string and hung in a well-lit place where moisture and drafts do not get. If this is not done, the harvested crop may deteriorate. The pledge of high-quality cigarettes, cigarettes or cigars (depending on the plans) is well-dried raw materials;
  • After the harvested crop has dried, the threads, with everything strung on them, can be folded four times until completely dry;
  • When the raw material is completely dry, it must be folded into piles in the manner of sheets of paper and carefully smooth out all wrinkles.
  • A properly harvested crop is the key to a quality product. It is important not to relate to this stage of tobacco production, this is one of the main points to which you should pay special attention.

Organization of correct storage

In autumn, after the entire crop has already been harvested and dried, it is worth taking care of the safety of the resulting product.

  • In order for the tobacco not to lose its taste and smell, it is worth paying special attention to the conditions of its storage:
  • The dried raw materials must be moved to a darkened room with a fixed temperature of 25-30 C;
  • Provide good ventilation, prevent air stagnation;
  • In the process of drying tobacco, it is fermented, as a result of which its properties are improved. Under natural conditions, this process occurs as a result of long-term storage, but it can be accelerated. It is enough to briefly place the dried leaves in an oven preheated to + 50 C.

In order for the fermentation process to be as efficient as possible, it is important not to forget about some features.

So, in order for the process to be complete, it is recommended:

  • Select dried leaves, while it is important that there is not a trace of greenery on them. But in the event that there are still such spots, it is not necessary to throw everything away, it is enough to cut out the damaged areas. The formation of greens is associated with a high content of chlorophyll, which does not lend itself to fermentation;
  • Selected leaves should be sprayed with a small amount of water from a spray bottle, stacked one on top of the other and wrapped in plastic. Leave the moistened plates for a day;
  • After a day, sort through the stacks and carefully cut out the middle veins from each leaf. In this case, it is worth paying special attention to their condition, the level of readiness for further fermentation. So, the plates should not be too wet, but at the same time, they should not crumble when bent. The finished sheet should be dry but flexible. If they are too wet, they need to be dried, and if they are dry, on the contrary, moisten and cover with a film again;
  • When the harvest is ready, it is recommended to cut the plates into strips and put them in glass jars. Ultimately, each can should be no more than two-thirds full and closed with a twist lid;
  • Mix the sliced ​​plates in a jar by shaking it and start preparing the oven;
  • After it warms up to + 50 C, put cans in it.

Fermentation takes place within a week. At the same time, it is important not to forget about the need to take out the cans from time to time and shake them. This is necessary for a more even distribution of the slices and their drying.

If traces of liquid appear on the glass of the jar, it is recommended to open it and dry the leaves additionally, and then start fermentation again.

During the normal course of work, already on the third day, you can feel a honey or fruit smell - evidence that fermentation is proceeding normally and does not need to be adjusted. After the end, it is recommended to pour the tobacco out of the cans and dry it a little. You need to store such a product in any sealed container.

There are not many rules for storing the finished product, but if you do not follow this simple list, there is a danger of letting all the work down the drain. Therefore, you should not treat this stage of the production of cigarettes or cigars negligently, since mistakes in it can kill all previous achievements.

Tobacco does not belong to whimsical crops, the cultivation of which requires special skill and dexterity; to care for it, it is enough to approach the matter with responsibility. It is possible to grow a bush on the windowsill, but it is worth remembering that the quality of cigarettes from this will be significantly inferior to that grown on the street.

Let's watch another interesting video:


Watch the video: McDonalds: Behind the Scenes of the Menu. Good Morning America. ABC News (July 2022).


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