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Pruning is a technique that serves to bring benefits to the plant, allowing it to grow and produce better, while also allowing the control and prevention of animal and fungal parasites.
There are various methods that allow you to achieve different goals. Let's see in detail:
1. Production pruning:
is intended to anticipate the entry into production of the plant, or to minimize the unproductive period and to postpone as far as possible the senescence, or old age, of the plant. This technique is carried out in the second year of life of the plant itself.
2. Green pruning:
It is the set of interventions that allows to eliminate the vegetation in "excess", as in the case of suckers, suckers, etc., so that the plant has no quality loss on the product. It is carried out between the middle of July and the middle of August, during the summer rest period of the plant.
3. Dry pruning:
in some ways it is similar to green pruning, because this is also done in the vegetative rest of the plant, and consists in eliminating excess branches from the previous year. In other words, it is a general "cleaning" of the plant, in preparation for the arrival of spring, to precede the vegetative growth. It is carried out in the winter period (mid-February to March), after the big frosts, to prevent the frost from causing cracks between the fissures of the cuts and infections in the branches. A good pruning on the dry serves to make the intervention of green pruning less laborious.
4. Farm pruning:
it is carried out mainly on young plants. With this technique we try to give the desired shape to the plant in order to have better access during the production of the fruits. As for ornamental plants, it is a form of aesthetic enrichment.
5. Pruning of containment:
it consists precisely in keeping the plant at the desired height and shape. It is a retouching technique that is used in the spring-summer period.
6. Pruning for rejuvenation:
serves to slow down the aging process of the plant, eliminating all the dry or diseased or broken parts.
7. Return cut:
it is practiced in the winter season, when the days are not too cold, and consists very simply in cutting the branch above the growth of the new branch, in order to favor it in the construction of a new branch.
the purpose of this technique is to stimulate the vegetation and the vigor of the branches. It consists in cutting the branches, leaving the stumps or spurs, which will stimulate the activity of the plant itself.
Pruning: How to prune
Let's start by saying that every cut of pruning performed is however a wound to the plant and therefore it must be treated properly, respecting some rules. Here are some suggestions:
- never make a cut too grazing to the gem, otherwise you run the risk of damaging it, and not even too far from it, because the left abutment could become a receptacle of diseases if it was dry. The ideal distance is about ten millimeters;
- the cut must have an angle of about 45 ° downwards in order to avoid stagnation and consequently fungal diseases and ice formation;
- cuts must always be made with decision and safety, so as to avoid smudging;
- the shears used must always be well sharpened, and at the end of the pruning work they must be disinfected, so as to avoid possible infection on other plants;
- the cut must always be made with the basal part of the shears and not with the tips, in order to obtain a clean cut;
- whenever large cuts are made it is necessary to protect the cut part immediately with mastic.