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With the term weeds we refer to all those herbs that in some way alter the yield of the plant. The weeds, in addition to affecting the aesthetic appearance of the crop, also have other effects, such as the reduction of light, the subtraction of nutrients and, even more serious, the absorption of water in summer. Furthermore, these plants are endowed with a rusticity that is superior to our plant. So, in case of unfavorable conditions, natural selection will cause the plant that will die to be ours and not the weed. The propagation of these essences occurs with almost all the methods of reproduction, and for this reason that in almost all the soils are found weeds.
In addition to water, nutrients and light, weeds also steal living space and in some cases also cause the death of crops. An example that everyone will have well in mind is that of the bindweed, which having a fickle habit is twisted around the plant and causes suffocation. Another problem that affects orchards and vegetable plants is the presence of flowers produced by weeds that they distract the attention of the pollinating insects (pollinators) from our crops by decreasing their pollination.
To avoid the onset of the problem it is advisable to try to keep the soil as clean as possible from weeds and weeds. One of the most important seed vectors is manure, in fact if it is not ripe it contains large quantities of seeds, which the animals have eaten. Therefore it is good to avoid the use of manure if not well mature. Other vectors for seed are irrigation waters that may contain seeds as well as parts of rhizomes and weed roots. Prefer irrigation methods with a mesh filter if dirty water is used. Using mulches and herbicide barks can greatly reduce the pest problem.
Mechanical struggle: this method, which is the most classic, consists in the eradication of the pest with its hands, or with the help of a weeder.
Fight with physical means: this technique is widely used for the weeding of banks and ditches. Weeding with the help of fire, however, is not always permitted by law and we must bear in mind the proximity to crops and the forest.
Chemical fighting: this type of struggle involves the use of chemical herbicides or herbicides. To intervene with this technique it is advisable to first know the selectivity of the product and the damage it causes both to the flora and to the fauna.
Herbicides act by contact, by translation or by a residual action.
Contact herbicides: in this category are enclosed products that eliminate the part that was affected by the product, leaving the root system unaltered. This weeding is useful for weeding of annual weeds.
Translocated herbicides: these products, also called systemic ones, allow the active principle to enter the plant in a circle and also eliminate the root system. These products act mainly on the plant's meristem, preventing photosynthesis and cell reproduction. It is a slower system than the previous one but guarantees a good result even on perennials with a rhizomatous apparatus.
Herbicides with residual action: commonly called antigerminello, they prevent the seed from germinating, they eliminate the infested at the very first stage of development. Unlike the previous ones these products can cover much longer periods, guaranteeing a partial cleaning of the soil.
How to intervene
The herbicides in contact and the translocable ones are distributed on the leaf, and absorbed through the stomata of the leaf, while those with residual action are distributed on the ground.
Pre-sowing treatments: these treatments are carried out before our crop is planted or sown. They are used before sowing on a lawn to clean it from weeds and to avoid selective weeding.
Post-emergency treatments: these treatments are carried out when our plant has already emerged from the ground: at this time the plant is much more prone to weeds as the competition for light and water is at its maximum.
Weeding: Action of herbicides
This term refers to the ability of a particular herbicide to be more harmful to certain essences. It is very important to remember that only if used with the right doses and with the right parameters the herbicide remains selective. Selective herbicides are distinguished both by their method of action and by the period of distribution.
Temperature: temperatures greatly affect the work of herbicides. Some systemic products need at least 8 ° temperatures to act. It is also true, however, that with higher temperatures between 25 ° and 28 ° the plant decreases the physiological functions with a decrease in the effectiveness of herbicides. In addition, too high a temperature decreases the evaporation time of the product, causing it to perform poorly.
Rain: usually, after the treatment, it should not rain for a day, to allow the active ingredient to enter the leaf. Conversely, a positive action is made by rain in the case of ground treatments, increasing the effectiveness of the treatment.
Light: this factor acts very positively with regard to systemic herbicides, increasing photosynthesis (the active principle of the systemic product comes into circulation more easily).